D49/3. attached by bolts to the top of each cylinder. by Caprotti Valve Gears Ltd whose address is also given as 66 Victoria Street, London SW1. River Esk, the first British locomotive to be fitted with Lentz gear was converted to piston valves within five required". These records also say it was for an Indian State Railways 4-6-2 locomotive, XS2 Type. and as it needed new cylinders the opportunity was taken to fit Lentz valves. The first British locomotive to be fitted with Lentz valves was ordered by the Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway experimenting with Lentz gear there must have been compelling reasons for him to decide not to proceed further and On the As with the B12s, the oscillating cam arrangement The whole valve gear mechanism was totally enclosed and ran in an oil bath. An undated handbook 'for Shed and Running Staff', which appears to have been written c.1936/37, entitled 'The Caprotti Valve Gear for Locomotives' was published by Caprotti Valve Gears Ltd whose address is also given as 66 Victoria Street, London SW1. A major criticism was the unusual commission. As an interim solution to a locomotive shortage the LNER placed an order for ten new B12s with Beyer Peacock of Manchester. Each cylinder had four valves, with an admission and exhaust valve at Considering the commitment, time, money and effort Gresley had put into experimenting with Lentz gear there must have been compelling reasons for him to decide not to proceed further and to sanction all these conversions back to piston valves. Patents Ltd'. internal combustion engine. Unlike the double beat type fitted to full-size locomotives, River Esk's Lentz valves were single beat. Alex Walford thinks this problem was probably due to the fact that the inlet and exhaust ports were close together and the temperature difference between inlet and exhaust steam led to excessive stresses in the casting. (13), The second P.2 class locomotive, No 2002 Earl Marischal, also built in 1934, was fitted with piston valves so that a direct comparison could be made with No 2001 and its poppet valve gear. fitted, but the valve events were consequently restricted to six ranges of cut-off in fore gear. ordered with piston valves as normally fitted to the class. 11. No 8280 was converted back to conventional piston valves in September 1937. However, Paxman's licence clearly did not In about 1927 Lentz Patents Ltd was asked to design a rotary cam arrangement. patent". Two LNER C7 Atlantics, former North Eastern Railway Class Z, The specially shaped profile was designed to quickly lift a valve fully open, to hold it open for the desired interval, and then speedily close it but in a controlled manner so that it was brought gently to rest on its seat without shock or hammering. The Paxman order book mentions "Three Sets of Lentz Valve Gear" so possibly three locomotives were converted. Paxman microfilm records note the order was for two three-cylinder locomotives. (5) There may, however, have been a more persuasive reason for Paxman accepting this unusual commission. Like all the piston valve engines These showed an average saving on coal of 16%. In about 1923 Paxman began to promote Lentz valves for locomotives. Paxman microfilm records say 30 sets for Series 1400 locomotives and 10 sets for Series 1700 locomotives. An enjoyable and interesting book with useful information is Geoffrey Hughes's book on Gresley, see 11 below. Paxman's World, Issue 11, Christmas 1985. his experience of Lentz valves and Paxman with Gresley required them to be fitted with Hugo Lentz (1859–1944) was an Austrian mechanical engineer, born in South Africa. THE LOCOMOTIVE, January 15, 1924, p 5. See also Orders 16959 and 17085 below. poppet valves or their valve gear. time. by more conventional Walschaerts gear in 1928. The by the First World War, few locomotive engineers seem to have given much attention to Lentz valves until the 1920s. A major shortcoming of the rotary cam type was the limited cut-off positions available for controlling steam admission to the cylinders. The engine returned to traffic on the 14th April 1938 and returned to Haymarket shed. To address these shortcomings, Dr Lenz developed a version of his poppet valve system for locomotives. According to a 1985 issue of Paxman's World "Cunard was a large customer of Davey Paxman & Co and Sir Aubrey asked them if they were interested in building a 'one off' miniature railway engine. (9). Lentz valves themselves or the Paxman patent valve gear, or a combination of the two. By 1924, in Austria, horizontal Lentz valves had been adopted as a standard for all new locomotives and were being fitted rapidly to older locomotives because of the country's pressing need for fuel economy at that time. by January 1934. They knew each other well and openly shared information and experience. The first recorded Paxman order for Lentz valve gear After being consulted by All sixteen of the B12s fitted with Lentz valves, conversions and new builds, had either been converted back to the original type of piston valves and valve gear, or been rebuilt as B12/3s with long-travel piston valves, by January 1934. Lentz poppet valves were given Rhodesian Railways Nos 182 to 191. Did Paxman dispose of, or lose, its Lentz licence at the end of 1928? LNER converted another five of their existing B12s to Lentz valves. Compared to the existing Stephenson valve gear, Walschaert's gear had the advantage that it only required one eccentric per val… The makers had not included this in their contract price and an unpleasant dispute followed. was No 2001 Cock o' the North, built in 1934. (11). As an afterthought Gresley required them to be fitted with Lentz poppet valves. As Hughes commented "Harsh words were said, and strong letters written. These were the only ones of the class to have oscillating cam operated valves and received the classification D49/3. Such high degrees of superheat made it all the more advisable to use poppet valves rather than piston valves, which perhaps explains their wider use in France. Lentz valve gear was carried out at LNER's Stratford Works in December 1926. (15). 7. Like the 0-6-0 goods locomotive, oscillating cam valve gear was again used. 'River Esk' and whether such exchanges played any part in encouraging Gresley 10 sets of Lentz Valve Boxes which were despatched to the North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow between April In the later improved and simplified form of Lentz gear, the spindles were According to a 1985 issue of Paxman's World "Cunard was a These showed an average saving on coal of 16%. first applied to an engine on the Oldenburg Railway of Germany in 1907. Five of the locomotives (13118, 13122, 13124, 13125 and 13129) were rebuilt with new cylinders and Lenz rotary cam poppet valve gear in 1931. The two key documents are papers read to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers by Oliver Bulleid in 1929 and Bert Spencer in 1947, see 11 and 15 below. It is suggested these two Lentz C7s ran well, with No. 15. on 16th April 1928 and despatched to Manchester on 27th June 1928. Considering the commitment, time, money and effort Before looking in more detail at valves, but not before Paxman had received two orders for spares for them in 1928. B3 class engines, Five of the Paxman-built locomotives designed by Greenly for the Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Railway were based on Gresley's famous LNER A1 (later A10) 4-6-2 Pacifics. Ordered in January 1924 and despatched in February 1925, the gear was for a 4-4-0 express passenger engine of the Dutch State Railways. Paxman had no aspirations to move into locomotive building and it has been suggested the Company only took on the 'River Esk' contract in response to an approach by Sir Aubrey Brocklebank. Paxman microfilm records say it was Class 1700. to experiment with Lentz valve gear. Changes will be made to the cylinder diameter, reducing it to 19.75 inches to compensate for the increased boiler pressure available from the 250lb/sq in diagram 118A fitted to Tornado.. Lentz engine was shown at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 where its inventor was awarded the Gold Medal. 5. engines of the 1920s. quickly lift a valve fully open, to hold it open for the desired interval, and then speedily close it but in a January 1936. Santa Fe 4-8-4 No 3752, Pennsylvania K4s 4-6-2 No 3847 and T1 4-4-4-4 No 5500 and US Army 2-8-0 No 611 were all fitted with Franklin Type B valve gear. Gresley's designs, Cock o' the North was the most powerful The publication, 'specially compiled for the use of Foremen and Engine Fitters', is undated their valve gear in November 1931. These were built in 1930 and received NWR Nos 780 and 781. Lentz engines were double acting, having four valves per cylinder: an admission valve on top and an exhaust valve underneath at each end of the cylinder. The by-pass valve 62 and the low-pressure exhaust valve 72 are provided with flanges 63 and 73, respectively, mounted to slide in bores 64 and 74, respectively, of the valve casings 13 and 4, respectively. (15), In most cases where locomotives were fitted with oscillating cam Lentz valves, these were operated by Walschaerts locomotive. Where there was an improvement, presumably this was too small to justify the cost of further Lentz conversions or applications. His proposed solution was to increase the temperature of the superheat by up to 100° C, to 350° or 400° C, He added later that "Opinions differ as to the comparative advantages of the When Cock o' the were generally fitted with slide valves. Gresley and A major difference was that the valve chests were not a separate 'bolt on' unit but were made complete The arrangement consisted of a revolving camshaft running right across the block of three cylinders cast in line, operating all the inlet and exhaust valves and giving any valve event desired. stresses in the casting. Paxman microfilm records say that 30 12. an order (No 3636) received by the Vulcan Foundry, Newton-le-Willows in 1928 for two 4-6-2 XS2 type locomotives with Acknowledgements: My thanks to Alex Walford who encouraged me to write this page, provided valuable source material and advised on several points relating to Lentz valves and valve gear; to Mike Gipson for retrieving information from Paxman's microfilm records; and to Chris West who provided information on Lentz locomotive built for Rhodesia and the North Western Railway of India. The D49/2s retained their rotary cam Lentz gear to the end of their working lives. The two key documents are papers read to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers by Oliver Bulleid in 1929 and Bert Spencer in 1947, see 10 and 14 below. of one of the superheated locomotives and found that the degree of superheat in the low pressure cylinder was of this type until 1934. article concluded: "We are given to understand that this poppet valve engine has been in service on main line passenger of Caprotti Valve Gear Ltd, 66 Victoria Street, London SW1. No 2001 had continuous cams, but, after approximately 10,000 miles' service, trouble was experienced owing to point A motive power crisis arose in East Anglia in 1927. The main A downside of this arrangement was problems in obtaining sufficiently variable cut-off A further connection is that Albert Howe, who had been in charge of Paxman's Gas Engine Drawing Office, went to work for Lentz Patents in 1925. Like all the piston valve engines of the class (D49/1), they were named after Shire counties. That’s the Lentz Way. 10. The valve gear of a steam engine is the mechanism that operates the inlet and exhaust valves to admit steam into the cylinder and allow exhaust steam to escape, respectively, at the correct points in the cycle. (Albert Howe, who had been in charge of Paxman's Gas Engine Drawing Office, went to work for Lentz Patents in 1925. At the time the Company was preparing to offer Lentz poppet valves for locomotives, actuated by its own patent valve gear. In fairness, controlled manner so that it was brought gently to rest on its seat without shock or hammering. Lentz gear for the North Western Railway (NWR) of India. In his book on Chapelon, Rogers writes "Because of the high superheat envisaged the locomotive chosen was one on which it had already been intended to try the Lentz poppet valve system, and for which arrangements had been made with Messrs Paxman & Co of London, licensees of the Lentz patent". arrangement. 10 sets of Lentz Valve Boxes which were despatched to the North British Locomotive Company, Glasgow between April and July 1926. Early reports from the Running Department indicated that they were Ordered in January 1924 and despatched in February 1925, the gear valve". The improvement in economy on coal and According to Bulleid, it was in 1923 that Gresley decided to investigate the possibilities of Lentz gear. In 1926 André Chapelon, the noted French locomotive engineer, put forward proposals for direct comparison could be made with No 2001 and its poppet valve gear. André Chapelon took a very scientific approach to improving the performance of locomotives on the Thank you to Richard Carr for permission to reproduce this article from his Here was a chance to install and demonstrate the benefits of the new equipment in a British locomotive. Paxmans agreed … although it is not known if it was costed as a commercially priced contract, or whether they regarded it as a novel but useful way of keeping a large customer happy, … " . No. exhaust and wide steam passages as well as Lentz valve gear. … " . valve gear and balanced slide valve cylinders. The other overseas orders which appear in the Paxman copy order books are: In Europe, in addition to the Dutch and Spanish orders mentioned above, there was an interesting Paxman-Lentz This topic is discussed in more detail lower down the page. It can also serve as a reversing gear.It is sometimes referred to as the "motion". Most of the These were built in 1930 and received NWR Nos 780 and 781. Two LNER C7 Atlantics, former North Eastern Railway Class Z, were used by Gresley to test a number of pieces of auxiliary equipment. The order is described as being for 'One Lentz Valve Box complete'. Staff', which appears to have been written c.1936/37, entiled 'The Caprotti Valve Gear for Locomotives' was published See also Orders 16959 and 17085 below. In the same year Cock o' the North, just under four years after completion, was converted to piston valves. The whole valve gear mechanism was totally enclosed and ran in an oil bath. May 16, 1939- H. LENTZ PoPPET VALVE coNrRoL FoR STEAM LocoMoTvEs 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 4, 1936v May 16, 1939. On the other hand it is no secret that Gresley clearly believed rotary motion was the ideal. these, it is worth noting that Gresley was on friendly terms 15. Quality Products. or Stephenson's motion with minor adaptations. His proposed solution was to increase the temperature of the superheat by up to 100° C, to 350° or 400° C, at admission to the high pressure cylinder. Lentz valves to British locomotives cannot be described as a success. As an interim solution to a locomotive shortage the LNER placed an order for ten new B12s with Beyer Peacock of Manchester. Following the success of trials with the 0-6-0 goods locomotive, generally working heavy coal traffic, the LNER conditions in the UK. Carbonisation of lubricating oil is a constant problem, particularly when high degrees of superheat are used. The following pages within the LNER Encyclopedia provide more detail about related subjects: For the Dutch State Railways 4-4-0 locomotive referred to in The Locomotive, Nov 15, 1924 (pp 338-9) where the locomotives are described as Series 836-935. It is not known whether the problems lay with the operation of the experiences, and perhaps also their own, that the future of Lentz gear was not looking as promising as it had a few advantage that its weight is not carried by the spindle and this may have some effect on the even seating of the require frequent attention. converted back to piston valves in September 1937. Originally constructed for the GER in 1913, No 8516 was one of the former S69 or 1500 Class. Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Railway were based on Gresley's gear for a three cylinder engine, which it did in collaboration with the LNER. The GWR's 'Caynham Court' retained her Lentz gear until the engine was scrapped in 1948. As speeds and boiler pressures of stationary steam engines increased at the end of the 19th century, and superheating Alex Walford has a booklet entitled 'Poppet Valves for Locomotives' subtitled 'A General Description and exhaust ports were close together and the temperature difference between inlet and exhaust steam led to excessive 14. (Bulleid left the LNER in autumn 1937 to become CME of Southern Railways.) It was built as a one of the last ten of the B12 class and was classified as B12/3 with the running plate raised over the wheels and with Lentz valve gear. The mill operated 20 hours a day 5 days a week, making excelsior, which was bailed and shipped by mail all over the U.S. As previously The extensive experiments of the LNER with Lentz valve gear were not matched by other members of the 'big four' British railways. 1/4" npt, 735 psi , full port ball valve, 500-999 pcs minimum, mention clearance when ordering In the conclusion to his 1947 paper Spencer noted that the results of the LNER's experience with poppet valves "have emphasised … the advisability of providing infinitely variable cut-off". Despite the persistent and courageous efforts of Gresley and Bulleid over ten years or so, the application of Lentz valves to British locomotives cannot be described as a success. Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd and Caprotti Valve Gears Ltd merit further investigation. The GWR's 'Caynham Court' retained her Lentz gear A major shortcoming of the rotary its own patent valve gear. At about the same time as it was fitting Lentz valves to some B12 locomotives, the LNER also fitted them to a number of the new 'Shire' class 4-4-0s being built at Darlington. practically nil. Paris-Orléans Railway. Nos 732 and 2212 were classified as C7/2. (A Walschaert Gear section starts on page 87.) wonders what discussions Greenly may have had with Gresley about Early locomotives decided to fit Lentz valves to a B12 Class 4-6-0 express 10. ibid pp 273, 275. trials of an engine mentioned in the November 1924 issue of The Locomotive. Named 'River Esk', the miniature 15" gauge 2-8-2 Paxman obtained a licence to use Lenz's designs and commenced building Paxman-Lentz stationary steam engines at Colchester in 1907. to sanction all these conversions back to piston valves. Bulleid - Last Giant of Steam, Sean Day-Lewis, George Allen & Unwin Ltd 1964. p 90. 4-8-0 belonging to the Madrid, Saragossa, Alicante Railway had been fitted experimentally with Lentz valves and had The engines with rotary cam gear were classified as D49/2 and a total of 42 were built between 1929 and 1935. Stepped cams were therefore The locomotive's conversion from piston valves is discussed in the November 1924 issue of The Locomotive (2). that independently controlled inlet and exhaust events are essential if substantial improvement in cylinder performance However piston valves also have their limitations. Like the 0-6-0 goods locomotive, oscillating cam valve gear was again used. These were built at the Queens Park works in 1926 and ten, Rhodesian Railways Nos 182 to 191, were fitted with Lentz poppet valves; later replaced by piston valves. 4. ibid, p 340. Bulleid spent three weeks in France observing the trials. The references to the Paris-Orléans Railway's discussions with Paxman raise interesting questions about the terms of Paxman's licence to manufacture and sell Lentz valve gear for locomotives and about the actual nature of the Company's relationship with the licensor. (14), Shortly before Paxman Lentz valves for locomotives appeared, Signor A Caprotti of Milan developed his poppet valve system. In the same year the LMS modified five 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives with Lentz rotary cam poppet valves. One brief reference we currently know nothing about this Company also developed an eponymous form of Lentz valve,. The LMS fitted Caprotti valve Gears Ltd merit further investigation were arranged vertically restrict the 's., and strong letters written being consulted by Gresley about the conversion of LNER class J20 0-6-0 goods locomotive XS2! The relationship between Paxman and Lentz Patents Ltd was asked to design a cam... To Richard Carr, ( see 4 above ) pps 42-44 service with minimal maintenance under four after... Interests of keeping these available to everyone, i have installed the programs his. An unpleasant dispute followed the LNER Encyclopedia deficiencies Dr Hugo Lenz ( 1859-1944 of! Inventor of many award-winning improvements to the end of 1928 by rods attached to eccentrics the... 'S conversion from piston valves within five years of being built to bring our customers an extensive selection the! Is a constant problem, Chapelon proposed that the locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review, 15... 'S large express locomotives was No 2001 Cock o ' the North locomotive... Be of No 3566 was highly successful and another 19 of the cam used open! Believed to be fitted with Lentz gear on No 352 Leicestershire, later the Meynell where valve. Section of the locomotive be tried out on the Board of Lentz for. 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